THE HISTORIC SANCTUARY OF MACHU PICCHU
The Historic Sanctuary – National Archaeological Park of Machu picchu (SHM-PANM) is a cultural and natural area inscribed on UNESCO’ World Heritage List. Covering 37302 hectares (92175 acres), it is one of the most biodiverse areas in Peru and contains more than 60 archaeological sites linked by a complex Inka Trail network.
The most important archaeological site inside the SHM-PANM is the Llaqta or Inka City of Machupicchu, which was planned and built beginning around 1450 CE during the reign of Inka Pachakuteq.
Its construction demanded the participation of specialists in architecture, engineering, and astronomy, as well as massive amounts of labor. More than 50% of the construction work was focused on site preparation, the building foundations, and the drainage system. The site’s location reflects the need of the Inka State to have a religious, political, and administrative center with a sacred space that linked Inka-controlled land in the Andes and the Amazon basin.
The Llaqta of Machupicchu
Was abandoned during the second half of the sixteenth century; it was never lost, however, as it was ocasionally visited and inhabited by local farmers. Some colonial documents refer to the Llaqta of Machupicchu as the “Settlement of the Ingas” or the “Old Village of the Inga Named Guaynapicchu.*” In 1874, the names “Machu Picchu” and “Huaina Picchu” appear for the first time in a cartographic document, which was prepared by engineer Herman Göhring. In 1911, Hiram Bingham, a profesor from Yale University, visited the Llaqta and was impressed by its beauty and majesty. The following year he returned with a multidisciplinary team of profesional who conducted excavations and research in the area.
Since the 1930s, the Peruvian government has been promoting the research, conservation, and enhancement of the SHM-ANM and the Llaqta of Machupicchu, which represents a masterpiece of art, architecture, and engineering in perfect armony with nature and is the most well-known legacy of the Inka civilization.
Important places to visit in Machu Picchu?
1. Main Gate
Inka architects designed the Llaqta’s main entry to frame the Waynapicchu Mountain, one of the guardian deities of the site. The doorway’s trapezoidal shape is a hallmark of Inka architecture.
2. Sun Temple
The temple is one of the best examples of organic architecture in the world and one of the finest in the Llaqta of Machupicchu. The lower level contains a stepped symbol, a lithic sculpture, and trapezoidal niches that were used for ceremonial purposes related to the cult of the dead. In the top level, trapezoidal niches can be found, along with a large carved rock altar and trapezoidal windows that were astronomical observation points.
3. House of the Inka
This compound or kancha is strategically located close to the first water fountains and the Temple ofthe
Sun. It has two entrances and served as a temporary residence for the emperor or his representatives. The main courtyard contains a set of architectural elements associated with the state religion.
4. Water Fountains
There are 16 water fountains located in the urban area. They display similar design features and
construction techniques; however, each is unique.5. Granitic Chaos – The fractured rocks and partially worked granite blocks in this area were still in the process of being shaped. The area was still being used as a quarry at the time the site was abandoned. It suggests what the site may have looked like before the construction
6. Sacred Plaza
This area encompasses the Main Temple, the Temple of the Three Windows, and a building of rustic architecture that served as a residence and storehouse for objects related to the ceremonies performed in the temples.
7. Intiwatana Pyramid
Here a rocky outcrop was terraced in the form of a truncated pyramid. On its summit are two enclosures, and in between them is a monolithic sculpture known as the Intiwatana orSukanka where ceremonies were held in honor of the sacred mountains surrounding the Llaqta.
8. Sacred Rock
This granite block, which is in the process of being ground down, is surrounded by an altar for theworship of sacred mountains. It is located between the central area of the Llaqta and Waynapicchu Mountain.
9. Three Gates
This room group is named for the symmetry of the sector’s 3 kanchas or compounds. Each kancha has one acess point that features a double jamb, trapezoidal doorway and a similar distribution of single rooms around an open central patio. The sector was a residential area for high-ranking elite.
This building was designed for astronomical observation, using the water mirrors that are at floor level incentral part of the room to reflect celestial phenomena.
The temple is at the center of a large ceremonial area where there is a representation of the condor sading its wings. The complexity of this temple is evidenced by the presence of underground passages related to the shipofwater.
HOW MUCH DOES TICKETS COST TO MACHU PICCHU?
The prices of the entrance vary according to the type of ticket you want.
Type of Tickets of Machu picchu?
I.- MACHU PICCHU (CITY OR LLACTA)
This ticket is one of the most popular and must be reserved weeks in advance to avoid inconvenieces, the intrance time to the wonder of Machu Picchu is from 6:00am – 2:00 pm. At the time of booking this ticket, you have to observe the entry time that is found at the top of the ticket.
II.- HUAYNAPICCHU MOUNTAIN
It is the most famous mountain that is located behaind the city of Machu Picchu with a height of 2750 m. to get to the top you must ascend for about 1 hour of walking along a steep and narrow path, veryfew are lucky enought to buy this income since there are only 400 permits per day divided into 2 turns. (It is recommended to reserve them 3 months in advance).
1st Group 7:00 am to 8:00 am (Machu Picchu + Huaynapicchu mountain)
2nd Group 10:00 am to 11:00 am (Machu Picchu + Huaynapicchu mountain)
III.- MACHU PICCHU MOUNTAIN
The mountain of Machu Picchu is located at 3050m an offers its visitors the best panoramic view of the inca city of Machu Picchu. to reach the top it takes about 2 hours of walking alonga wide path and not so steep in comparison from the Huaynapicchu mountain. This sector only offers 800 tickets per day.
1st Group (entrance Machu Picchu from 6:00 am/ mountain 7:00 am – 8:00 am)
2nd Group (entrance Machu Picchu from 7:00 am/ mountain 7:00 am – 8:00 am)
3rd Group (entrance Machu Picchu from las 8:00 am/ mountain 9:00 am – 10:00 am)